A multilevel meta-analysis of whole number computation interventions for students with learning disabilities


The effects of whole number computation interventions among school students with learning disabilities in grades K to 5 were examined using a multilevel meta-analysis. Applying a correlated and hierarchical effect model of robust variance estimation, we examined the intervention effects among 15 peer-reviewed articles and dissertations (two group design and 13 single-case design) published between 1989 and 2021. Whole number computation interventions demonstrated a statistically significant and large effect on whole number computation outcomes (g = 3.74). The type of mathematical operations, type of whole number computation measures, and the number of instructional components did not significantly affect the magnitude of the effect size estimate. However, the results showed slightly larger average effect sizes for the addition problem, the accuracy measure, and the additional number of instructional components by one. The limitations and implications for the practice of the meta-analysis are discussed, and future research directions are proposed

Remedial and Special Education